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The main question: how much food, owe their origin only life really has in your life – plays an important role in a different area. There is no doubt that the freshly pressed juice of healthy fruit or vegetable contains more vitality, can nourish man. We have already explained that to maintain these forces can only partially. But as you know, people are striving to “improve” nature: why in the juice or other vegetable products “should be” separated from “unnecessary”. When the dawn of scientific research nutritional problems came to the conclusion that the only important “energy content” and well-digested “nutrients” substances from foods, such as from cereals and rice, have to remove indigestible components and proud of snow-white flour and white rice. All this, in particular on rice, long time did not cause any concerns. Then there were specific disorders: paralysis, paresis, and other violations of neurological nature, which became known as beriberi. Later, it became clear that people have something missing, and what was not enough, exactly what was contained in the rice-cleaning, which were thrown out or fed to pigs. Then began the hunt for the missing stuff and really found. Chemically, it turned amine and, apparently, was the bearer of life [vita (Latin)]. So there was the word vitamin – the symbol of the vital substance that people should certainly get together with food. Subsequently, in addition, an open first, vitamin B, were found and other similar substances, all of whom became known as vitamins, with the addition, to distinguish one from the letters of the alphabet. By definition, vitamins are substances which the body itself can not produce, but which flow from the outside it is vital. However, each organism its relations with vitamins. Thus, most animals can produce their own vitamin C, ie, for them it is as if no vitamin. But the man and, oddly, the guinea pig on it is not capable of. They need to get vitamin C from food, it is found in all fresh fruit, and generally is one of the most common vitamins. If there is no vitamin C, and more specifically, fresh food, people get sick from scurvy, especially before it suffered the sailors on long voyages, when it was not possible to replenish stocks of fresh food. In the diseased scurvy appeared to symptoms such as bleeding, severe weakness, loosening and tooth loss.(далі…)
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CLASSIFICATION fiber Dietary fiber – complex carbohydrates, polymers, monosaccharides and their derivatives, contained in plant foods and can not stomach the human intestine. Foods of animal origin does not contain dietary fiber. Physico-chemical properties of dietary fibers are divided: – Soluble fiber – in the aquatic environment, these fibers are very swell, absorbing water and become the mucous, studneobraznuyu mass. By soluble fiber include pectin, gums, mucilages, some hemicellulose fraction; – Insoluble dietary fiber – in the aquatic environment greatly swell, but remain with their form. By insoluble fiber include cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose portion.
Out of insoluble dietary fiber in products often present cellulose, or cellulose (from the Latin cellula – cell). It is similar in chemical structure of starch is a polymer of glucose. However, due to differences in the structure of the molecular chains of cellulose, in contrast to starch, is not split in the human intestine. Cellulose is the main component of cell walls of plants, plant tissues gives strength and elasticity of a lot of fiber (cellulose) found in vegetables – cabbage, carrots, pubs. Hemicellulose – polysaccharide cell wall, composed of branched polymers of glucose and hexose. Hemicellulose is able to retain water and bind heavy metal ions. It is prevalent in cereals, in the seeds of legumes. Lignin – an organic polymer compound consisting of polymers of aromatic alcohols. Lignin reported structural rigidity of the plant cell membrane, they envelop the cellulose and hemicellulose, cause lignification of plant tissues. Lignin can inhibit the digestion of membrane of intestinal microorganisms, so the most saturated lignin products (bran, etc.) are poorly digested in the gut.
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